Adiestramiento

1432111627056325La disciplina ecuestre de Adiestramiento tiene como objetivo principal que el binomio realice una serie de movimientos preestablecidos o ejercicios, según su nivel y aptitud, dentro de un rectángulo de arena que tiene una extensión de 20 x 60 metros.

El cumplimiento de estos ejercicios, la perfección de su ejecución y los movimientos armónicos del binomio serán evaluados por un grupo de jueces que otorgará puntaje por cada uno de los ejercicios mostrados.

En el Adiestramiento se desarrolla armónicamente el físico y la habilidad del caballo, en directa relación con su jinete. Esta comunicación entre jinete y cabalgadura se manifiesta en la libertad, soltura y facilidad de movimientos que ambos despliegan. El equino da la impresión de hacer los desplazamientos por voluntad propia, porque las órdenes del jinete son casi imperceptibles.

1422480591352762El Adiestramiento pretende probar en competencia la flexibilidad, la firmeza y el acierto del caballo en todos los aires: cambios de marcha y dirección, cambios de mano y de pie, además de su obediencia para realizar los ejercicios. La preparación de un caballo para esta disciplina dura en promedio cinco años y tarda aún más en perfeccionarse. Un caballo de adiestramiento debe ser calmo, flexible, confiado, atento y vivaz, de manera que logre entenderse perfectamente con el jinete.

En suma, el Adiestramiento es el entrenamiento completo de caballo y jinete. Es un desarrollo del estilo clásico del manejo del caballo. De hecho, lo practicaban caballeros medievales y oficiales europeos de caballería. Se dice que es la disciplina madre de todos los deportes ecuestres.

Incorporado al programa de los Juegos Olímpicos desde 1912, el Adiestramiento debe apreciarse como un espectáculo de alta plasticidad y precisión por la complejidad de los ejercicios que se desarrollan.

Fuente: Federación Ecuestre de Chile 

HAUTE ÉCOLE EXERCISES

Back-In – a side movement where the horse curves in on itself, moving its hind end inwards moving along a straight line, keeping the curve of its longitudinal axis at a 35º angle with the track.

Travers  – (“Haunches In”) is a sideways movement where the horse’s hind end moves inwards bending its longitudinal axis and keeps moving along in a straight line.

Renvers – (“Haunches Out”) is a sideways movement where the horse’s hind end moves outwards, bending its longitudinal axis and keeps moving along in a straight line.

Passage – Is a powerful and elevated trot where the horse covers less space to increase the suspension between its diagonal bipeds, characteristic of the trot.

Piaffer – Maintaining the trot air, the horse does not move forward, but trots on the spot, and must increase its endurance ability.

Pirueta – This is the narrowest circle of the hind end; a short gallop around the inside hind leg; the horse makes a full circle confined to 6-8 regular gallop beats, without going outside of the space. There is the whole pirouette and the half pirouette. The pirouette is one of the most elegant and difficult exercises; it must be rhythmically fluid and balanced.

HAUTE ÉCOLE AIRS ABOVE THE GROUND

Levade – The horse rises, keeping its haunches tightly bent over its hind end at no more than 45º, calmly keeping this position for several seconds. The levade can be made either with fore legs tied to pillars or ridden. A series of repeated rises is called either mezair or terre á terre.

Passade – Is similar to the levade. The horse is not bent as tightly over its hind end and rises more than 45º.

Courbette – The horse performs the levade between 2-5 times without ever lowering its front half. It is one of the hardest airs above the ground.  One may often go several years before finding, in new generations of horses, one with the skill needed to perform the courbette, which is also a master’s level exercise for the rider.

Groupade – The horse lowers from the levade in a slanted position that is similar to the passade, holding back the rear half, without reaching a horizontal position. The stage previous to the courbette is the cabriole.

Ballotade – This is similar to the groupade, one stage before the cabriole, in which the horse, with its rear end curled up, prepares to kick; thus one can see the hooves from behind. Thanks to the high jump, the horse’s body almost reaches a horizontal position.

Cabriole – The horse jumps from the Piaffer with its fore legs and hind legs and at the same time kicks with its rear end, making its body reach a horizontal position in the air. This is the École’s most spectacular air above the ground, which only especially skilled horses can learn on the pillars. In the Cabriole, the rider must also be extremely concentrated. He rides mounted, as always in haute école, without any stirrups.